Safe Driving Techniques - Preparing For Emergencies
The concept of safe driving does not mean the ability of the driver in the car, but the quality and harmony of the individual's behavior in traffic. The driver should know the features and limits of the vehicle he/she drives, be able to maintain driving dominance in the vehicle he/she uses, and apply defensive driving techniques in a traffic environment with variable conditions. He must use his vehicle in accordance with the rules, road and weather conditions, and in a way that does not pose a danger to other drivers.
The measure of being a good driver is not just driving for many years. The most important values define the concept of a safe driver; knowledge, ability and especially a sense of responsibility. Defining a driver as a good driver is based on how carefully, efficiently and safely he drives his vehicle.
What is defensive driving?
Defensive driving is the name given to the technical driving training that can be taken by people who know how to drive or who are just learning to drive. Thanks to the simple knowledge and techniques learned in these training sessions, many accidents or risks can be overcome.
Defensive driving training, especially for drivers who will just start driving, plays an important role in improving their driving skills and gaining significant gains. Driving by learning defensive driving techniques always means being prepared for possible risks. On the other hand, it helps to prevent indirect accidents by eliminating the mistakes of other drivers in the traffic.
Safe driver or skilled driver?
While they are well suited to driving in terms of skills and abilities, there is much evidence that many people are more dangerous drivers than those who are weaker in this respect. It is estimated that these people enter into more risky situations by relying on their abilities and skills, and some of these risks are realized. Whatever the explanation for this, the important thing is that being in good standing in terms of abilities and skills does not mean being safe. However, studies show that safe driving habits can compensate for many deficiencies.
Traffic rule violations
Many of the accidents occur due to violating the most basic traffic rules and carelessness. In order to ensure road safety, even the simplest traffic rule should be strictly followed without skipping
The most frequently violated traffic rules can be listed as follows:
- Not wearing a seat belt.
- Drinking and driving.
- To usurp the priority right of pedestrians at pedestrian crossings.
- Crossing a red light or not obeying traffic signs.
- Speeding and not obeying speed limits.
- Incorrect overtaking.
- Turning or changing lanes without signaling.
- Talking on a cell phone while driving.
- Failure to comply with pass priority rules.
- Following the vehicle in front closely, not complying with the following distance.
- Getting into corners faster than they should.
What are safe driving techniques?
PAY ATTENTION TO TRAFFIC SIGNS AND OBEY ALL TRAFFIC RULES
- Before you start using your vehicle, make sure that everyone in the vehicle is wearing their seat belts. Comply with the city, extra-urban and highway speed limits and the speed limits on the traffic signs. Adjust your speed considering the weather conditions and road conditions.
- While driving, a pedestrian or animal may cross the road at any time. Items or materials may fall from loaded vehicles, something may hit your vehicle with the effect of wind. Our mirrors will be our biggest helpers when we are on the road. In addition, warning systems that started to be used with the introduction of technology into our lives will also be useful. Be prepared and careful about your reactions to any danger that may come your way in traffic.
- Do not neglect the maintenance and controls of your vehicle's tires and brake system. Find out the equipment features of your vehicle, its driving support systems and its reactions in sudden braking.
- There should always be a safe distance between you and other vehicles. In addition, a certain distance should be maintained laterally. Be aware that the vehicle in front of you may brake suddenly, or that a vehicle next to you may become a hazard if it gets too close. Keep the distance you may need in case of sudden braking for safe driving. When determining the following distance, you can take half of your speed as a base. For example, if you are driving at a speed of 90 km, your distance to the vehicle in front of you should be 45 m. A vehicle traveling at 90 km/h travels an average of 25 meters per second. Since it travels 50 meters in two seconds, you can determine your distance in this way.
- With snow tires, your vehicle may need more distance to stop than in dry weather conditions. The basic rule of safe driving is to leave three times the braking distance on snow or ice.
CONCENTRATE ON THE ROAD WHILE DRIVING
- When you are tired, distracted, or have poor vision, take a break in a safe place. Traveling at night requires extra attention. Since night vision is reduced, you should first reduce its speed by 20%. In order to prevent the lights of the vehicle behind you from dazzling your eyes, you should make sure that your rear view mirror is dimmed. On long journeys, it will be useful to take a 15-minute break every 3 hours. If you feel sleepy, you can extend the break time and even sleep for a few hours in the vehicle.
- When changing lanes and overtaking, check your mirror and always signal.
- Do not talk on the cell phone while driving. Air conditioning, music system, etc. in your vehicle. controls of accessories should not adversely affect your control and driving safety while driving.
- Do not turn up the volume of the music in the vehicle at very high levels. Proper driving is achieved by your careful focus on the road.
- The negativities you may encounter while driving may not only be caused by the weather and road conditions or the vehicle you are using, but sometimes the carelessness of other drivers may also cause adverse situations. In such situations, instead of getting angry, you should act calmly and calmly.
- Watch out for hidden icing. Remember, if a road looks slippery, it probably really is. For safe driving, go slowly and avoid areas where there may be hidden ice by turning the steering wheel slightly or applying the brakes slowly.
- Before the vehicle starts to overtake, you must start signaling to the left, so that the vehicles around you can be aware of your overtaking. You must proceed in the passing lane until you see the vehicle that you will pass by overtaking in your rear view mirror and complete the transition to the right lane safely by signaling to the right.
- If you want to brake at the right time and in a suitable position, you need to press the brake and clutch at the same time for manual vehicles. In this way, when you press the brake, the engine is disabled and the forward speed of the vehicle slows down. In vehicles with automatic transmission, it will be enough to press the brake.
- Road conditions and the speed of the car are the two most important variables when it comes to corners. As a basic safe driving technique, before entering the corner, the speed should be reduced by slowing down and the ideal speed should be reached when exiting the corner. In addition to speed, another issue to be considered on curvy roads is road conditions. It would be correct to drive much slower and more controlled on roads with slippery ground and corners.
- In case of skidding, you should avoid pressing the brake and accelerator to control the slip and skidding, especially when cornering. When you press the brake, the wheels lock and the slip intensity increases, and when you press the gas, the wheels turn faster and the skid level increases. You need to give yourself time to prevent skidding and regain grip. While doing this, you can try to slow down by taking your foot off the gas instead of pressing the brake pedal all the way. Steering control plays a vital role in dealing with skidding in slippery road conditions. In order for the vehicle not to go in different directions, the steering wheel must be kept straight until the road grip is achieved.
- Aquaplaning is a scary situation for everyone. Aquaplaning occurs when there is more water on the road than the tires can discharge. Water is pushed under the tire, creating a thin film that separates the tire from the road surface, causing the tire to lose traction. As a result, steering and braking ability are lost. Particularly wide tires (they need to push more water outward) and with worn tread are the tires most likely to experience aquaplaning. When a small amount of tread remains, the grooves fill with water and the tire cannot drain the water. The same happens when the tire pressure is not correct.
- What should you do when suddenly faced with the effect of aquaplaning? Take your foot off the gas, but don't hit the brakes. Avoid turning the steering wheel and depress the clutch if your car has a manual transmission. Wait until you feel the tires make contact with the road again.
- Acting in haste while driving can cause an accident. You should drive the vehicle without haste, especially in foggy weather when visibility is narrow and on days when snow and ice prevail.
- In the case of understeer, if the speed limits are not exceeded, the situation can be recovered with a few techniques. At this time, the most basic thing to pay attention to will be to avoid sudden movements that will completely remove the control of the vehicle. The foot should be pulled slightly from the gas, and traction should be provided by touching the gas very lightly in rear-wheel drive vehicles. It should be kept in mind that any kind of panic and sudden movement can have negative consequences, and sudden braking, accelerator and steering movements should be avoided while sliding.
- Although technologies such as the lane tracking system increase safety, you should never lose sight of driving a car.
What are advanced driving techniques?
Although driving a car is an experience based on accelerating, decelerating and turning under normal conditions, different dynamics come into play when you are on the road. It is necessary to master advanced driving techniques in order to manage processes that are independent from each other, especially the behavior of other drivers, bad weather and road conditions.
Advanced driving techniques refer to the methods applied to ensure maximum driving safety in all conditions. It includes actions such as the reaction to be taken when entering the bend, the ability to avoid obstacles and the experience of vehicle safety systems. Advanced driving techniques learned through the training provided by experts in traffic-free areas aim to develop preparations and reflexes for possible dangers while driving.